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initial commit, mostly template

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[submodule "template"]
path = template
url = ssh://laborejo/~/lss/template.git
branch = master

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Version 3, 29 June 2007

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# Patroneo
Patroneo (which is Esperanto for "Pattern") is an easy to use pattern based midi sequencer that handles the three most important musical parameters: pitch, rhythm and dynamics.

This README is just a short introduction. You better read the manual, which also includes detailed instructions how to build Patroneo from source and start it.

Workflow summary: You have tracks with one pattern each. Turn on steps in the pattern to play musical notes. Switch the patterns on and off in a sequence to create a song structure. Connect external synthesizers and samplers to create sounds.

* Website
* Documentation and Manual

Patroneo is primarily designed for educational purposes, where the main goal is to teach the importance of patterns and repetitions in any kind of music.

However, Patroneo is a full sequencer you can use to create real music. The constraints it presents will more likely boost your creativity than suppressing it.

# Installation and Starting

## Download
Download the latest release through your package manger or the code on

* `./configure --prefix=/usr`
* `make`
* `sudo make install`

Patroneo can then be started using the Non Session Manager.

## Dependencies
* Python 3.6 (maybe earlier)
* PyQt5 for Python 3

### Build Dependencies
* Nuitka >= 0.6 (maybe earlier)
* GCC (development is done on 8.2, but most likely you can use a much earlier version)

### Environment:
* Jack Audio Connection Kit must be running
* Patroneo must be started via the Non Session Manager

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program=patroneo #MUST be the same as engine/ shortName
cboxconfigure="--without-fluidsynth --without-libsmf"

. template/configure.template #. is the posix compatible version of source

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[Desktop Entry]
Comment=Easy to use pattern sequencer for JACK and NSM
Comment[de]=Einfach zu bedienender Pattern-Sequencer

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Before After
Width: 32  |  Height: 32  |  Size: 942B

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Run ./ for html output in the /out directory.

.adoc is asciidoctor, not simple asciidoc.

This documentation is licensed under Creative Commons-BY-SA-4.0.
Please read the provided documentation/LICENSE file or visit

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#The documentation is built statically and does not belong to the normal build process with configure and make
#Its updating is part of the development process, not packaging and running.
#The correct out/ dir is already part of git.

set -e
asciidoctor index.adoc -o out/index.html

asciidoctor german.adoc -o out/german.html
cp overview-german.png out/overview-german.png

asciidoctor english.adoc -o out/english.html
cp overview-english.png out/overview-english.png

#cp *-quickstart*.mp4 out/

cp favicon.* out/

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:Author: Nils Hilbricht
:Version: 1.0

This documentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
To view a copy of this license, visit or send a
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A copy of the license has been provided in the file documentation/LICENSE.



:toc: left
:toc-title: Table of Contents
:toclevels: 3

== Patroneo User Manual

We are happy you chose Patroneo. Patroneo is an easy-to-use sequencer, a program that sends digital "notes" to software instruments such as synthesizers and samplers.

Patroneo means "pattern" in Esperanto. The reason for this is that you don't put single notes in a row but build whole measures, which you can repeat - or leave out - at any place.

== Installation and Starting

Patroneo is exclusive for Linux. The best way to install Patroneo is to use your package manager. If it is not there, or only in an outdated version, please ask your Linux distribution to provide a recent version.

If available in the package repository, please continue reading directly at "Start Patroneo from Non Session Manager".
If not, you can build Patroneo yourself.

* First install the packages Python3, PyQt5, Nuitka, GCC and Git
* And these audio packages: Jack Audio Connection Kit, QJackCtl (or something else to establish Jack connections), Non Session Manager
* Now Patroneo itself:
** `git clone && cd Patroneo`
** `cd Patroneo`
** `./configure`
** `make`
** `sudo make install`

.Start Patroneo from Non Session Manager (NSM)
* Run `non-session-manager`
* Press the `New` button, and enter a name for your piece of music.
* Press the `Add Client to Session` button, enter `patroneo` here, in lower case.
* Add Client again, this time `jackpatch`.
* Add any compatible programs, e.g. synthesizers.
** See the list of NSM compatible programs:
** And the NSM manual:
* To save Patroneo, use the `Save` button in NSM.

== How to use Patroneo
The following explains how to use Patroneo.

The program is almost exclusively operated with the mouse. You need three mouse buttons and a mouse wheel. Most of the time the mouse wheel itself is the middle mouse button, and you can press it down.

We encourage you to experiment a lot. Very often good music is created when users have not only used programs as it was intended.

=== Quick Start
To get to know the most important functions and workflows, this video has been created.


Or as Youtube Mirror

video::ygpwn0gzO8g[youtube, width=500]

=== Basic Principles
Patroneo organizes its music in tracks that contain measures. All measures of a track play the same "pattern" that creates music through a sequence of "steps".

The track is connected to an instrument through JACK, so Patroneo itself does not produce any sounds.

If you press Play, the track plays back from left to right. Whenever a measure is highlighted in the Form Editor, the pattern is played.

If you want to hear different patterns from the same instrument, you create several tracks for the same JACK instrument.

The selection of the tones per pattern is freely selectable. You can use normal musical scales or set any tones in any order. If you change the scale later, the pattern sounds different without having to switch tones on and off again.

Saving and loading your project is done by the Non Session Manager. There you will find a "Save" button.

=== Keyboard Controls
In principle, Patroneo can be operated with the mouse. The keyboard is needed for only a few functions, such as changing track names or setting half-tone transposition. However, the keyboard makes some workflows faster and more convenient.

* Space: Start and pause playback
* L: Play the current measure as a loop
* Backspace: Set playback to the beginning of the track.

== Description of the graphical user interface and its functions
Use your browser's search function to locate the individual letters like [B] and their explanation.

image::overview-english.png[Screenshot with Captions, link="overview-english.png"]

Patroneo consists of three parts: The Toolbar, the Form Editor, and the Pattern Editor. Between form- and pattern editor there is a *[L] Handle* which you can grab with the left mouse button and move it up or down to give more space to one or the other area.

=== Toolbar

The *[A] Toolbar* combines various commands with properties of the entire piece.

*[D] Clone Selected Track* adds a new track based on the currently selected one. This is an important and often used command that is mainly used to enable variants. The cloned track is empty, but inherits the scale of the original, its average velocity or volume, color and name. If the name ends in a single letter like "A", "g" or a number, it is automatically incremented, as you can see in the screenshot. The new track automatically connects to the same JACK instrument.

*[E] Add Track* adds an empty track. It is given a random name and is not connected in JACK.

*[F] BPM / Tempo*: The tempo can be completely deactivated by unchecking the box. In this case, the "JACK Transport" system takes over, as indicated by the "JACK" logo in the deactivated input field. This allows programs running in parallel to create complex tempo sequences, which is not possible in Patroneo alone. +
If the checkbox is activated, the specified tempo is considered to be beats per minute. A "beat" is the selected note value of the list [H]. More on that later.

*[G] Measures per Track* controls the total length of the piece, whereby the absolute number of seconds can change depending on how the tempo is selected and how long a measure should be. If the number of measures is reduced, no measures are actually deleted, but just ignored. If you later set the number of measures higher again, you will get your old configuration back.

*[H] Steps per Pattern, in groups of ... so that each group produces a ...* note. Here you can set how long the patterns are and what grouping below the beat they have. This is the most complicated part in Patroneo and will be discussed later in this manual. For now it is recommended to ignore the "groups" field. Steps per Pattern is simply the number of tones that can be switched on and off. The drop down list selects how long each of these steps is.

*[I] Playback Controls* are three buttons. From left to right:

* Play / Pause. Press to play or pause the music at the current location. You can also press the space bar.
* Loop on and off. The currently played measure (in all tracks) is continuously repeated. This function is suitable for working in a certain place by getting to hear your changes quickly. The loop is broken up by pressing the button again or jumping around in the timeline (see letter Z below).
* To the start: Jumps back to the beginning, whether the music is playing or not.

=== Form Editor

In the *[B] Form Editor* you create the structure of a piece. To do this, the measures in each track can be switched on and off as desired. One can imagine, for example, a drum set that plays three bars in a row and makes a "break" every fourth bar. For this common drum technique you need two tracks. In the screenshot this "3+1" pattern can be seen in the third section (bars 17 to 24) in the orange bass track. +
Whole parts (e.g. verse and chorus) are implemented by using different tracks. To make the creation of related tracks as comfortable as possible, the "clone" command exists (see letter D).

It is possible to zoom in on the measures. To do this, hold down the *CTRL* key and turn the mouse wheel up or down. Please make sure that the mouse cursor is actually over the measures and not over the track names or on the timeline.

*[Z] Timeline*: a click with the left mouse button sets the playback position, even during playback. +
In addition, the measure groups (not to be confused with grouping in the pattern, see letter H) can be seen and set here. If you hover over the timeline with the mouse cursor, you can reduce or increase the size of the groups with the mouse wheel. The groups not only have an cosmetical function but are also used as units of measurement if you want to delete or add entire ranges (see letter K).

*[J] Track Names*. Here you can move tracks, rename them, give them a different color and more:

* A single click with the left mouse button on a name selects a track without changing anything. This is the best way to just look at a track. (A click on the measure area changes a measure immediately!)
* The double arrow on the far left can be used to move tracks up and down to organize them. It has no effect on the sound or the JACK connections. To move, click on the arrow with the left mouse button, hold it down and move the mouse up and down.
* The colored square shows the current color. A left mouse click opens a dialog.
* Track names can be changed at any time by a double-clicking with the left mouse button. Press the Return key to finish renaming. The JACK connection is retained when renaming. +
It is a good habit to end tracks on a single letter or number. These are used in "cloning" to construct a variant of the name. See the screenshot above.
* A click with the right mouse button on a name opens the context menu of a track. Here you can
** Switch all measures on or off (only applies to the visible measures)
** Invert the activated measures: Off becomes On and vice versa.
** Clone this track (same function as in the toolbar)
** Delete the track permanently and irreversibly
** Copy the measure sequence of another track onto the selected one. Measures that have already been set are preserved. If you use this function from an empty track you will practically get "copy track".

Now finally the *[K] Track* itself. A left click on a measure switches it on or off again. You can switch several measures in a row on and off by holding down the left mouse button after clicking and moving the mouse left or right.
A right click on a specific measure opens a context menu: Insert new measures in all tracks(!) at this position or delete measures from all tracks. The number of measures results from the current measure group setting from the time line (see letter Z). +
These functions are especially understandable if you apply them to the first measure of a group (after the white line). This allows you to insert new "parts" or delete an entire part. +
A good method is also to change the group size for these functions briefly and then reset them immediately afterwards.

*[X] Half Tone Transposition* is adjusted by holding down the SHIFT key and then turning the mouse wheel up or down over an activated measure. In the measure itself a small text appears, e.g. +5h. Five semitones upwards; C becomes F, MIDI note 60 becomes 65; the transposition is only valid for the respective measure and is not visible in the pattern itself (see below). If the measure is switched off (and on again), the transposition is deleted.

*[Y] In-Scale Transposition*. It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the pattern and its scale (see letters O to R) first. Are you back? All right, here we go: +
If you hold the mouse cursor over an activated measure, you can adjust the transposition, based on the scale, with the mouse wheel up or down. The label shows how many steps up or down (-6s to +6s) this measure is shifted. If the measure is switched off, the transposition also disappears. In the pattern itself (see below) you cannot see whether a measure is transposed or not.

One can imagine that the steps in the pattern are shifted up or down in the rows behind the scenes. Whatever tone is set in this row gets played. With a normal scale, this is musically easy to understand: The tones are moved up or down in the scale. +
However, if the scale is chosen freely, there are non-intuitive outcomes; "up and down" with respect to pitches may lose their meaning. It is possible to use two interleaved scales in the pattern and to switch between them by scale transposition +1. Or even uses completely different tones, so that only the rhythm remains the same.

Scale and half-tone transposition can be combined. First the scale is changed, then the semitone. These combinations open up many creative possibilities!

=== Pattern Editor

The *[C] Pattern Editor* is used for composing. The tones, also called "steps", are used to form a measure. The pattern is exactly as long as a measure and is played from left to right. There are several possibilities for tonal arrangement, which are now explained.

The pattern is always as long as set in the toolbar (see letter H). Steps that have been set are never deleted by rezising! If you make the measures shorter, tones "too far to the right" are simply ignored. You can see them again as soon as you make the measures longer again.

If the pattern is larger than the screen you can either use the scroll bars or zoom. To zoom hold down the *CTRL* key and turn the mouse wheel up or down.

At the top you can see a label for the *[M] Active Track*.

The pattern itself is arranged in rows and columns. The rows symbolise the (adjustable) pitches, the columns show their rhythmic sequence and position in time.

==== Duration and Volume

A *[S] Step* is a grey or coloured box. Grey means pause, coloured means *[T] Sounding Tone*. A click with the left mouse button switches the steps on and off. +
A right click opens the context menu. Here you can switch all (currently visible) steps on, off or invert all: Off On becomes Off and vice versa. All volume information (see below) will be lost.

All steps are equal length. *[V] Other Durations* are also possible: If you hold down the left mouse button after activating a step, you can shorten or lengthen the tone by moving it to the left or right. It must be at least half the length. A tone is at most as long as the measure itself.

You can activate as many steps in a row or simultaneously as you like. Thus *[W] Chords* can be built.

Steps can have different *[U] Volumes*. For this Patroneo uses so-called MIDI Velocity. If you hold the mouse cursor over an activated step, you can make its sound softer or louder by turning the mouse wheel. The volumes are displayed as numbers between 1 and 127. If you want to see all volumes at once you can click with the mouse wheel (middle mouse button) into the free area left or right of the pattern. In addition, a step looks more transparent the quieter it is. If the step is switched on and off, the volume is set back to the normal value, derived from the average volume of all tones of this pattern. +

You can use the *[M] Velocity* buttons to make all tones of a pattern quieter or louder. If you click on it, the volume changes by 1 each, but if you hold the mouse cursor over a button and rotate your mouse wheel the velocity changes by 10 each. It doesn't matter which velocity button (plus or minus) you hover over.

==== Pitches and Scales

Click with the middle mouse button on a step to hear the sound it plays. This allows you to "pre-listen" before you decide to set a note. Tip: Hold down the middle mouse button and move the mouse up and down the steps.

Which actual pitch is played ("MIDI Key") is determined by the *[R] Scale*. Patroneo always works with eight-note scales. Normally, this is a common musical scale: seven different notes and the octave of the root note.

Such common *[Q] Scales* can be selected directly. For example, major, minor, various so-called "church modes" but also the blues scale or chromatic (e.g. to GM drum mapping) +
If you select a scale from the list, it will be built upon the bottom row. As a rule of thumb this is also the lowest note. In the screenshot this is midi note 60 / C4, located bottom left. You must first select the root directly and then select a *[Q] Scale*.

There are four buttons to change the pitch of both the root note and the entire scale:

* *[O] Half Tone* Plus or minus shifts the whole scale up or down by one semitone each. This should not be confused with the temporary transposition from the form editor (see letter X). This is called destructive change, since the values themselves are permanently changed.
* *[P] Octave* Plus or minus shifts directly by a whole octave. You could also press the half-tone button 12 times. Don't.

As already described in the scale transposition (see letter Y), it is also possible to directly input any value between 0 and 127 in the *[R] Fields of the Scale*. The tones do not have to have musically meaningful intervals, nor do they have to be sorted in ascending or descending order.

==== Shadows

Often you want to add more tones to an existing track in a different pattern. A second voice, question/answer technique etc.
To help you, it is possible to display other tracks as *[2] Shadows*. Just click with the middle mouse button on the track you want to see. This is only possible in the measure area, not on the track name or on the timeline.

You can display as many shadows as you want, until you lose track. All shadows disappear as soon as the active track changes.

=== Grouping in the Pattern

Grouping is part of the time signature.

As mentioned above *steps per pattern*, sets the length of the pattern. Patroneo starts with 8 steps per measure for a new project (see screenshot). On the far right is a drop down list, which is set to "Quarter" for a new project. You start with a traditional 8/4 time signature.

The field *in groups of* allows you to group steps together, each group being as long as specified in the drop down list. This allows you to further subdivide your time signature. The "beat", i.e. the tempo, is based on the main beats, the first step of each group.

* 4/4 time signature with eights notes as smallest rhythmical unit
** 8 steps per pattern / in groups of 2 / so that each group produces a quarter
* 4/4 time signature subdivided as triplet eights notes (swing)
** 9 steps per pattern / in groups of 3 / so that each group produces a quarter
* 12/8 time signature
** 12 steps per pattern / in groups of 1 / so that each group produces an eigth
* 8/4 time signature subdivided as sixteenth notes
** 32 steps per pattern / in groups of 4 / so that each group produces a quarter

Normally, the time signature is set relatively at the beginning of a new project. However, it happens every now and then that you need smaller rhythm values than you thought at the beginning. If you simply increase the value of the grouping, you get more subdivisions, but the number of steps remains the same. Likewise, the notes remain exactly in the "column" in which they were previously placed. In other words, the music will sound different. Overall, the measure is also getting shorter, since the same number of steps is now used for shorter steps.

Patroneo therefore offers the function *[3] Convert Grouping* to change the existing measure structure and to resize steps already set so that the music sounds the same.

If you click on the button in the toolbar, a small dialog box opens in which you can enter the desired grouping. It is also possible to set what should happen if the conversion would not work properly for musical reasons (see below).

Conversion is often possible without any problems:

* If the grouping of `1` is set to a higher value, it always works
* If the grouping is set from `2` to `4` it always works

For all other transformations it depends on whether the existing tones lie between the new grid after the conversion or not. The former case is not possible and you have to decide:

.Error Handling
* Do nothing (default)
** The operation is aborted, everything remains as before.
* Delete wrong steps
** Anything that would appear between the grid will be deleted or discarded.
* Merge wrong steps
** Impossible positions are moved to the next possible position. In any case, this means that the music now sounds different. Usually several notes are pushed on top of each other and form chords.

With a little experience you will be able to estimate what error handling you need.

== Development
The further development of Patroneo will consist of improvements in the areas of stability and program performance.
New functions are not categorically excluded, but are only possible after long-term observation of user behaviour.

=== Translations
Patroneo is very easy to translate with the help of the Qt-Toolchain, without any need for programming.
The easiest way is to contact the developers and they will setup the new language.

However, here are the complete instructions for doing a translation completely on your own and integrating it into the program.

* Open a terminal and navigate to the Patroneo directory
* In the Patroneo directory: `cd gui/translations`
* Edit the file `` with a text editor
** Append the name of your language in the 2nd line, in the form `tXY.ts`, where XY is the language code.
** Make sure to leave a space between the individual languages entries.
* Run `pylupdate5`
** The program has now generated a new `.ts` file in the `translations` subdirectory
* Start Qt Linguist with `linguist-qt5` (may be named differently) and open your newly generated file
* Select your "Target Language" and use the program to create a translation
* Send us the.ts file, such as by e-mail to (see below for more contact options)

You can also incorporate the translation into Patroneo for testing purposes. This requires rudimentary Python knowledge.

* In the Qt Linguist "File" menu is a "Release" option. This creates a `.qm` file in the same directory as your `.ts` file.
* Open the `patroneo` starter file in your text editor
** Scroll down to the bottom to set the language.
** To find out your language string (German, Esperanto etc.) remove the # hash from the existing line `#print (language)`. Start NSM from a terminal, start Patroneo and the language string will be printed there (you have to search a bit)
** At the end of the file is a dictionary `supportedLanguages`. Add your language. For example `{"German": "de.qm", "Esperanto: "eo.qm"}`

=== Bugs
If you find a bug in the program (or it runs too slow) please contact us in a way that suits you best.

.How to contact us
* E-Mail:
* Bugtracker:
* IRC: #laborejo on server
* If you see the opportunity and know that a developer will read it also forums, Facebook etc..

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:Author: Nils Hilbricht
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This documentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
To view a copy of this license, visit or send a
letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.
A copy of the license has been provided in the file documentation/LICENSE.



:toc: left
:toc-title: Inhaltsverzeichnis
:toclevels: 3

== Patroneo Bedienungsanleitung

Schön, dass du dich für Patroneo entschieden hast. Patroneo ist ein leicht zu bedienender "Sequencer", also ein Programm, dass digitale "Noten" an Softwareinstrumente, wie Synthesizer und Sampler, schickt.

"Patroneo" heißt "Muster" auf Esperanto. Das kommt daher, dass man hier nicht einzelne Noten hintereinander setzt sondern ganze Takte baut, die man dann beliebig oft an beliebigen Stellen wiederholen - oder auslassen - kann.

== Installation und Start

Patroneo ist exklusiv für Linux. Am besten installierst du Patroneo über deinen Paketmanager. Falls es dort nicht vorhanden ist, oder nur in einer veralteten Version, bitte deine Linuxdistribution Patroneo bereitzustellen.

Falls in den Paketquellen vorhanden bitte direkt bei "Patroneo im Non Session Manager starten" weiterlesen.

Falls nicht kann man Patroneo auch selbst "bauen".

* Installiere zunächst die Pakete Python3, PyQt5, Nuitka, GCC und Git
* Und diese Audiopakete: Jack Audio Connection Kit, QJackCtl (oder etwas anderes um Jack Verbindungen herzustellen), Non Session Manager
* Jetzt Patroneo selbst:
** `git clone && cd Patroneo`
** `cd Patroneo`
** `./configure`
** `make`
** `sudo make install`

.Patroneo im Non Session Manager (NSM) starten
* Starte `non-session-manager`
* Knopf `New`, gib einen Namen für dein Musikstück ein.
* Knopf `Add Client to Session`, gib hier `patroneo` ein, kleingeschrieben.
* Nochmal Add Client, diesmal `jackpatch`.
* Füge beliebige kompatible Programme hinzu, z.B. Synthesizer.
** Siehe auch das NSM Handbuch:
** Und die Liste der NSM kompatiblen Programme:
* Um Patroneo zu speichern benutzte den `Save`-Knopf in NSM.

== Bedienung
Im folgenden wird erklärt, wie Patroneo bedient wird.

Das Programm wird fast ausschließlich mit der Maus bedient. Du benötigst zwingend drei Maustasten und ein Mausrad. Meistens ist das Mausrad selbst die mittlere Maustaste, und man kann es herunterdrücken.

Wir ermutigen dich, viel zu experimentieren. Sehr oft ensteht gute Musik wenn Benutzer Programme nicht nur so benutzt haben, wie es eigentlich angedacht war.

=== Schnellstart
Um die wichtigsten Funktionen und Arbeitsabläufe kennenzulernen ist dieses Video erstellt worden.


Oder auf Youtube

video::mr-_d9gw0Xw[youtube, width=500]

=== Grundlagen
Patroneo organisiert seine Musik in Spuren, die Takte enthalten. Alle Takte einer Spur spielen das selbe "Muster", dass durch eine Abfolge von "Schritten" Musik erzeugt.

Die Spur ist durch JACK mit einem Instrument verbunden, Patroneo selbst erzeugt also keine Klänge.

Drückt man Play läuft das Stück von links nach rechts durch. Immer wenn ein Takt im Formeditor markiert ist wird das Muster gespielt.

Möchte man verschiedene Muster vom gleichen Instrument hören so erstellt man mehrere Spuren für das gleiche Zielinstrument.

Die Auswahl der Töne pro Muster ist frei wählbar. Man kann normale Tonleitern / Skalen nehmen oder auch beliebige Töne in belieber Reihenfolge setzen. Ändert man die Skala nachträglich, dann klingt das Muster auch direkt anders, ohne das man Töne neu ein- und ausschalten muss.

Das Speichern und Laden deines Projektes wird durch den Non Session Manager erledigt. Dort befindet sich ein "Save" Knopf.

=== Tastatursteuerung
Patroneo kann prinzipiell mit der Maus bedient werden. Die Tastatur ist nur für wenige Funktionen dringend nötig, etwa um Spurnamen zu ändern oder um Halbtontransposition einzustellen. Allerdings macht die Tastatur manche Arbeitsabläufe schneller und bequemer.

* Leertaste: Start und Pause der Wiedergabe.
* L: aktuelle Taktpositionen in Schleife spielen.
* Backspace ("Rückwärts löschen"): Wiedergabe an den Anfang des Stückes setzen.

== Beschreibung der grafischen Oberfläche und ihrer Funktionen
Benutze die Suchfunktion deines Browsers um nach den einzelnen Buchstaben wie [B] und deren Erläuterung zu suchen.

image::overview-german.png[Screenshot mit Beschriftung, link="overview-german.png"]

Patroneo besteht aus drei Teilen: Der Werkzeugleiste, dem Form-Editor und dem Takt- oder Mustereditor. Zwischen Form- und Mustereditor befindet sich ein *[L] Verschiebegriff*, den man mit der linken Maustaste anklicken und bei gedrückter Taste hoch oder runter schieben kann um dem einen oder anderen Bereich mehr Platz zu geben.

=== Werkzeugleiste

Die *[A] Werkzeugleiste* kombiniert verschiedene Befehle mit Eigenschaften des gesamten Stückes.

*[D] Klon* der ausgewählten Spur fügt eine neue Spur auf Grundlage der momentan ausgewählten hinzu. Dies ist ein wichtiger und oft benutzer Befehl, der hauptsächlich benutzt wird um Varianten zu ermöglichen. Die "Klonspur" ist zwar leer, erbt allerdings die Skala der Originals, seine Durchschnittslautstärke, die Farbe sowie den Namen. Endet der Name auf einem Einzelbuchstaben wie "A", "g" oder einer Zahl so wird diese automatisch erhöht, wie man am Bild gut sehen kann. Die neue Spur verbindet sich darüberhinaus automatisch zum gleichen JACK-Instrument.

*[E] Neue Spur* fügt eine leere Spur hinzu. Diese bekommt einen Zufallsnamen und ist nicht in JACK verbunden.

*[F] BPM / Tempo*: Das Tempo kann zunächst durch setzen des Hakens komplett deaktiviert werden. In diesem Fall übernimmt das "JACK Transport" System die Geschwindigkeit, erkennbar am Schriftzug "JACK" im deaktivierten Eingabefeld. Somit können parallel laufende Programme komplexe Tempoverläufe erstellen, was in Patroneo allein nicht möglich ist. +
Aktiviert man den Haken so gilt das angegebene Tempo als Schläge pro Minute. Ein "Schlag" ist hierbei der ausgewählte Notenwert der Liste ganz rechts, bei [H]. Dazu später mehr.

*[G] Takte pro Spur* regelt die Gesamtlänge des Stückes, wobei sich die absolute Sekundenzahl ändern kann, je nachdem wie das Tempo gewählt wird und wie lang ein Takt sein soll. Reduziert man die Taktanzahl werden keine Takte gelöscht, sondern nur ignoriert. Setzt man später die Taktzahl wieder höher bekommt man seine alte Auswahl wieder.

*[H] Schritte pro Takt, gruppiert in je ... und jede Gruppe ergibt eine ...* Note. Hier kann eingestellt werden wie lang die Muster sind und welche rhythmische Aufspaltung sie haben. Dies ist der komplizierteste Teil in Patroneo und wird daher erst später in dieser Bedienungsanleitung besprochen. Fürs erste empfiehlt es sich das "gruppiert"-Feld zu ignorieren. Schritte pro Takt ist einfach die Anzahl an Tönen, die man ein- und ausschalten kann. Die Auswahlliste stellt ein wie lang jeder dieser Schritte ist.

*[I] Wiedergabe* sind drei Knöpfe zur Wiedergabe. Von links nach rechts:

* Play / Pause. Drücken um die Musik abzuspielen oder an der momentanen Stelle anzuhalten. Man kann auch die Leertaste drücken.
* Schleife (Loop) ein- und ausschalten. Der momentan abgespielte Takt (in allen Spuren) wird stetig wiederholt. Diese Funktion eignet sich um an einer bestimmten Stelle zu arbeiten indem man seine Veränderungen schnell zu hören bekommt. Die Schleife wird aufgelöst wenn man erneut auf den Knopf drückt oder in der Zeitleiste herumspringt (s.u. Buchstabe Z)
* An den Anfang: Springt wieder an den Anfang, egal ob die Musik gerade läuft oder nicht.

=== Form-Editor

Im *[B] Form-Editor* erstellt man die Stuktur eines Stückes. Dazu schaltet man die Takte in jeder Spur beliebig ein und aus. Man kann sich z.B. ein Schlagzeug vorstellen, dass drei Takte gleich spielt und jeden vierten Takt einen "Break" macht. In Patroneo braucht man dazu zwei Spuren. Dieses "3+1" Muster kann man auf dem Bild z.B. im dritten Abschnitt (Takt 17 bis 24) in der orangen Bassspur sehen. +
Auch ganze Teile (z.B. Strophe und Refrain) werden durch verschiedene Spuren abgedeckt. Um das Erschaffen von verwandten Spuren so bequem wie möglich zu machen existiert der "Klon" Befehl (s. Buchstabe D).

Es ist möglich im Bereich der Takte zu zoomen. Hierzu hält man die *STRG* Taste gedrückt und dreht das Mausrad hoch oder runter. Bitte darauf achten, dass der Mauszeiger tatsächlich über den Takten steht, und nicht etwa bei den Spurnamen oder auf der Zeitleiste.

*[Z] Zeitleiste*: ein Klick mit der linken Maustaste setzt die Wiedergabeposition, auch im laufenden Betrieb. +
Außerdem kann man hier die Taktgruppen (nicht zu verwechseln mit Gruppierung im Muster, s. Buchstabe H) sehen und einstellen. Hält man sich mit dem Mauszeiger im Bereich der Zeitleiste auf kann man die Gruppen mit dem Mausrad verkleinern oder vergrößern. Die Taktgruppen haben nicht nur organisatorische Funktion sondern werden auch als Maßeinheit benutzt, wenn man ganze Taktbereiche löschen oder hinzufügen möchte (s. Buchstabe K).

*[J] Spurnamen*. Hier kann man Spuren verschieben, umbennen, ihnen eine andere Farbe geben und mehr:

* Ein einfacher Klick mit der linken Maustaste auf einen Namen wählt eine Spur aus, ohne etwas zu verändern. Dies ist die beste Möglichkeit um eine Spur einfach nur anzusehen. (Ein Klick auf den Taktbereich verändert sofort einen Takt!)
* Der Doppelpfeil ganz links kann benutzt werden um Spuren hoch und runter zu schieben, um sie zu organisieren. Es hat keine Auswirkung auf den Klang oder die JACK Verbindung. Zum Verschieben mit der linken Maustaste auf den Pfeil klicken, gedrückt halten und die Maus hoch und runter bewegen.
* Das farbige Quadrat zeigt die derzeitige Farbe. Ein linker Mausklick öffnet die Farbauswahl.
* Spurnamen können jederzeit geändert werden indem man einen Doppelklick mit der linken Maustaste auf sie macht. Die Enter-Taste oder ein Mausklick in einen anderen Bereich des Programmes schließen das Umbennen ab. Die JACK Verbindung bleibt beim Umbenennen erhalten. +
Es ist eine gute Angewohnheit Spuren auf einem Einzelbuchstaben oder eine Zahl enden zu lassen. Diese werden beim "Klonen" benutzt um eine Variante des Namens zu bilden. Siehe dazu unser Bild oben.
* Ein Klick mit der rechten Maustaste auf einen Namen öffnet das Kontextmenü einer Spur. Hier kann man
** Alle Takte ein- oder ausschalten (gilt nur für die sichtbaren Takte)
** Die sichtbaren Takte umkehren oder invertieren: Aus wird zu An und umgekehrt.
** Die Spur klonen (gleiche Funktion wie in der Werkzeugleiste)
** Die Spur endgültig und unwiederbringlich löschen
** Die Taktabfolge einer anderen Spur auf die ausgewählte projizieren. Bereits gesetzte Takte bleiben hierbei erhalten. Benutzt man diese Funktion von einer leeren Spur aus erhält man praktisch "Spur kopieren".

Nun endlich die *[K] Spur* selbst. Ein Linksklick auf einen Takt schaltet diesen ein oder wieder aus. Mehrere Takte in Folge kann man ein- und ausschalten indem man die linke Maustaste nach dem Klicken gedrückt hält und die Maus nach links oder rechts bewegt.
Ein Rechtsklick auf einen bestimmten Takt öffnet ein Kontextmenü: Neue Takte in allen Spuren(!) an dieser Position einfügen oder Takte aus allen Spuren löschen. Die Anzahl der Takte ergibt sich aus der derzeitigen Taktgruppeneinstellung aus der Zeitleiste (s. Buchstabe Z). +
Diese Funktionen sind besonders nachvollziehbar wenn man sie auf den jeweils ersten Takt einer Gruppe anwendet (nach dem weißen Strich). Man kann so neue "Teile" einfügen oder einen gesamten Teil löschen. +
Eine gute Methode ist es auch die Gruppengröße für diese Funktionen kurz zu verändern und anschließend direkt wieder zurückzusetzen.

*[X] Halbtontransposition* wird eingstellt indem man die SHIFT Taste gedrückt hält und dann das Mausrad über einem aktivierten Takt hoch oder runter dreht. Im Takt selbst zeigt sich ein kleiner Schriftzug, z.B. +5h. Fünf Halbtöne aufwärts; aus C wird F, aus Midinote 60 wird 65. Die Transposition gilt nur für den jeweiligen Takt und ist im Muster selbst (s.u.) nicht zu sehen. Schaltet man den Takt aus (und wieder ein) ist die Transposition gelöscht.

*[Y] Skalentransposition*. Es wird empfohlen sich erst mit dem Muster und seiner Skala bzw. Tonleiter vertraut zu machen (s. Buchstaben O bis R). Wieder da? Gut, so gehts: +
Hält man den Mauszeiger über einen aktivierten Takt kann man mit dem Mausrad hoch oder runter die Transposition, basierend auf der Skala, einstellen. Die Beschriftung zeigt an um wieviele Schritte nach oben oder unten (-6s bis +6s) dieser Takt verschoben ist. Schaltet man den Takt aus verschwindet auch die Transposition wieder. Im Muster selbst (s.u.) ist nicht zu sehen ob ein Takt transponiert ist oder nicht.

Man kann sich das so vorstellen, dass die Schritte im Muster hinter den Kulissen in den Reihen hoch oder runter geschoben werden. Welcher Ton auch immer in dieser Reihe eingestellt ist wird gespielt. Bei einer normalen Tonleiter ist das musikalisch leicht nachvollziehbar: Die Töne werden in der Tonleiter hoch- oder runtergeschoben. +
Wenn die Skala allerdings frei eingestellt wurde ergeben sich unintuitive Möglichkeiten; "Hoch und Runter" in Bezug auf Tonhöhen verlieren dann evtl. ihre Bedeutung. Denkbar ist, dass man zwei verzahnte Tonleiter im Muster benutzt und durch Skalen-Transposition +1 zwischen diesen hin und herschaltet. Oder gar völlig verschiedene Töne benutzt, so dass nur der Rhythmus gleich bleibt.

Skalen- und Halbtontransposition können kombiniert werden. Zuerst wird die Skala verändert, dann erst der Halbton. Mit diesen Kombinationen ergeben sich viele kreative Möglichkeiten!

=== Muster-Editor

Der *[C] Muster-Editor* ermöglicht das eigentliche Komponieren. Dazu setzt man die Töne, auch "Schritte" genannt, um einen Takt zu bilden. Das Muster ist genau so lang wie ein Takt und wird von links nach rechts abgespielt. Man hat dabei einige Möglichkeiten zur klanglichen Gestaltung, die nun erklärt werden.

Das Muster ist immer so lang wie man in der Werkzeugleiste (s. Buchstabe H) eingestellt hat. Es werden niemals gesetzte Schritte gelöscht! Macht man die Takte kürzer werden Töne "zu weit rechts" lediglich ignoriert. Sie sind wieder zu sehen sobald man die Takte wieder länger macht.

Ist das Muster größer als der Bildschirm anzuzeigen vermag kann man entweder die Scrollleisten benutzen oder zoomen. Hierzu hält man die *STRG* Taste gedrückt und dreht das Mausrad hoch oder runter.

Zu oberst sieht man die momentan *[M] Aktivierte Spur*, bzw. das zur Spur gehörige Muster.

Das Muster selbst ist in Reihen und Spalten angelegt. Die Reihen symbolisieren die (einstellbaren) Tonhöhen, die Spalten zeigen deren rhythmische Abfolge und Position im Takt.

==== Länge und Lautstärke

Ein *[S] Schritt* ist ein graues bzw. farbiges Kästchen. Grau bedeutet Pause, farbig bedeutet *[T] Klingender Ton*. Ein klick mit der linken Maustaste schaltet die Schritte an und aus. +
Ein Rechtsklick öffnet das Kontextmenü. Hier kann man alle (gerade sichtbaren) Schritte einschalten, ausschalten oder die gesetzen Schritte tauschen; Aus An wird Aus und umgekehrt. Hierbei gehen alle Lautstärke Informationen (s.u.) verloren.

Alle Schritte sind grundsätzlich gleich lang. *[V] Besondere Tonlängen* sind aber auch möglich: Hält man die linke Maustaste gedrückt, nachdem man einen Schritt aktiviert hat kann man mit einer Bewegung nach links oder rechts den Ton verkürzen oder verlängern. Es muss mindestens die Hälfte der Länge sein. Ein Ton ist höchstens so lang wie der Takt selbst.

Man kann soviele Schritte hintereinander oder gleichzeitig einschalten wie man möchte. Somit lassen sich auch *[W] Akkorde* bilden.

Schritte können unterschiedliche *[U] Lautstärken* haben. Dazu benutzt Patroneo die sogenannte Midi Velocity. Hält man den Mauszeiger über einen aktivierten Schritt kann man durch Drehung des Mausrades diesen Ton leiser oder lauter machen. Die Lautstärken werden als Zahlen zwischen 1 und 127 angezeigt. Möchte man alle Lautstärken auf einmal sehen kann man mit dem Mausrad (mittlere Maustaste) in den freien Bereich links oder rechts des Musters klicken. Zusätzlich sieht ein Schritt umso durchsichtiger aus je leiser er ist. Schaltet man den Schritt an und aus wird die Lautstärke wieder auf den Normalwert gesetzt. Dieser ergibt sich aus der Durchschnittslautstärke aller Töne dieses Musters. +

Um alle Töne eines Musters leiser oder lauter zu machen kann man die *[M] Velocity* Knöpfe benutzen. Klickt man diese an ändert sich die Lautstärke um je 1. Hält man allerdings den Mauszeiger über einen Knopf und dreht das Mausrad ändert sich die Velocity um je 10! Dabei ist es egal über welchem Velocity Knopf (plus oder minus) man schwebt.

==== Tonhöhen, Skala und Tonleiter

Klicke mit der mittleren Maustaste auf einen Schritt um den Ton zu hören, den dieser abspielt. Hiermit kannst du schonmal "vorhören", bevor du dich entscheidest einen Ton zu setzen. Tipp: Halte die mittlere Maustaste gedrückt und fahre mit der Maus über die Schritte auf und ab.

Welche tatsächliche Tonhöhe abgespielt wird ("Midi Key") entscheidet die *[R] Skala*, teilweise auch Tonleiter genannt. Patroneo arbeitet immer mit Achtstufigen Skalen. Im Normallfall handelt es sich hierbei tatsächlich um eine Tonleiter: Sieben verschiedene Töne und oben drauf der oktavierte Grundton.

Solche normalen *[Q] Tonleitern* kann man direkt auswählen. So z.B. etwa Dur, Moll, verschiedene sogenannte "Kirchentonleitern", aber auch die Blues Töne oder chromatische Reihen (z.B. um Schlagzeug-Software anzusteuern). +
Wählt man aus der Liste eine Tonleiter aus so wird diese auf der untersten Reihe gebildet. In der Regel ist dies auch der tiefste Ton. Auf unserem Bild ist dies Ton 60 / C4, links unten. Man muss also zuerst den Grundton direkt auswählen und anschließend eine *[Q] Tonleiter* auswählen.

Um sowohl den Grundton als auch die gesamte Skala nachträglch in ihrer Tonhöhe zu verändern gibt es vier Knöpfe:

* *[O] Halbton* Plus oder Minus verschiebt die ganze Skala nach oben oder unten um je einen Halbton. Dies ist nicht zu verwechseln mit der nur zeitweisen Transposition aus dem Spureditor (s. Buchstabe X). Man spricht hier auch von destruktiver Veränderung, da man die Werte selbst dauerhaft ändert.
* *[P] Oktave* Plus oder Minus verschiebt direkt um eine ganze Oktave. Man könnte auch 12 mal auf den Halbtonknopf drücken. Kann man aber auch lassen.

Wie in der Skalentransposition (s. Buchstabe Y) bereits beschrieben ist es aber auch möglich selbst jeden beliebigen Wert zwischen 0 und 127 in die *[R] Felder der Skala* einzutragen. Die Töne müssen weder musikalisch sinnvolle Abstände haben, noch müssen sie aufsteigend oder absteigend sortiert sein.

==== Schatten

Oft möchte man zu einer existierenden Spur noch weitere Töne in einem anderen Muster setzen. Eine zweite Stimme, Frage/Antwort-Technik etc.
Als Hilfe gibt es die Möglichkeit sich andere Spuren als *[2] Schatten* anzeigen zu lassen. Dazu einfach mit der mittleren Maustaste auf die Spur klicken, die man sehen möchte. Das geht nur im Taktbereich, nicht auf den Spurnamen oder auf der Zeitleiste.

Du kannst so viele Schatten anzeigen, bist du die Übersicht verlierst. Alle Schatten verschwinden sobald die ausgewählte Spur wechselt.

=== Gruppierung im Muster

Die Gruppierung gehört zur Taktart.

Wie bereits oben beschrieben stellt *Schritte pro Takt* die Länge des Musters ein. Patroneo startet mit 8 Schritten pro Takt bei einem neuen Projekt (s. Bild). Ganz rechts ist eine Auswahlliste, die bei einem neuen Projekt auf "Viertel" steht. Man startet also mit einem traditionellen 8/4 Takt.

Durch das Feld *gruppiert in je* kann man nun die Schritte in Gruppen zusammenfassen, wobei jede Gruppe so lang ist wie in der Auswahlliste angegeben. Damit kann man seine Taktart weiter unterteilen. Der "Beat", also das Tempo, orientiert sich dabei an den Hauptschlägen, der jeweils erste Schritt einer Gruppe.

* Ein 4/4 Takt mit Achtelnoten als kleinste Rhythmuseinheit
** 8 Schritte pro Takt / Gruppiert in je 2 / Jede Gruppe eine Viertel
* Ein 4/4 mit Triolen als kleinste Rhythmuseinheit ("Swing")
** 9 Schritte / Gruppiert zu 3 / Gruppe ergibt Viertel
* Ein 12/8 Takt
** 12 Schritte / Gruppiert zu 1 / Gruppe ergibt Achtel
* Ein 8/4 Takt mit Sechzehntelnoten
** 32 Schritte / Gruppiert zu 4 / Gruppe ergibt Viertel

Normalesweise stellt man die Taktart relativ am Anfang eines neuen Kompositionsprozesses ein. Es kommt jedoch immer mal wieder vor, dass man kleinere Rhythmuswerte braucht, als man anfangs dachte. Wenn man einfach den Wert der Gruppierung erhöht erhält man zwar mehr Unterteilungen, die Anzahl der Schritte bleibt jedoch gleich. Ebenso bleiben die Noten genau in der "Spalte" stehen, in der sie vorher standen. In anderen Worten: die Musik wird anders klingen. Insgesamt wird auch der Takt kürzer, da die gleiche Anzahl von Schritten nun auf kürzere Schritte verteilt wird.

Patroneo bietet deswegen die Funktion *[3] Gruppierung Umwandeln*, um die bestehende Taktstruktur zu verändern und bereits gesetzte Schritte so zu skalieren, dass die Musik gleich klingt.

Klickt man auf den Knopf in der Werkzeugleiste öffnet sich ein kleines Dialogfenster, in dem man die gewünschte Gruppierung eingeben kann. Außerdem ist es möglich einzustellen, was passieren soll, wenn das Umwandeln aus musikalischen Gründen nicht komplett funktionieren würde (s.u.).

Oft ist ein Umwandeln problemlos möglich:

* Wird die Gruppierung von `1` auf einen höheren Wert gesetzt funktioniert es immer
* Wird die Gruppierung von `2` auf `4` gesetzt funktioniert es immer

Bei allen anderen Umgruppierungen kommt es darauf an, ob die vorhandenen Töne nach dem Umwandeln zwischen dem neuen Raster liegen oder nicht. Der erstere Fall ist nicht möglich und du musst dich entscheiden:

.Reaktion auf Fehler. Falls unmöglich:
* Nichts machen (Voreinstellung)
** Der Vorgang wird abgebrochen, alles bleibt wie vorher.
* Falsche Schritte löschen
** Alles was zwischen dem Raster herauskommen würde wird gelöscht bzw. verworfen.
* Falsche Schritte mit einbinden
** Unmögliche Positionen werden auf die nächstmögliche Position geschoben. Dies führt in jedem Fall dazu, dass die Musik nun anders klingt. Meist werden dadurch mehrere Noten übereinander geschoben und bilden Akkorde.

Mit ein wenig Erfahrung wird man abschätzen können, was man braucht.

== Entwicklung
Die weitere Entwicklung Patroneos besteht aus der Verbesserung in den Bereichen Stabilität und Programmgeschwindigkeit.
Neue Funktionen werden zwar nicht kategorisch ausgeschlossen, sind aber erst nach Langzeitbeobachtung des Nutzerverhaltens möglich.

=== Übersetzungen
Patroneo ist mit Hilfe der Qt-Toolchain sehr einfach zu übersetzen, ohne, dass man dafür Programmieren muss.
Die einfachste Variante ist es einfach die Entwickler anzusprechen und sie werden die neue Sprache einrichten.

Hier ist dennoch die komplette Anleitung, um eine Übersetzung komplett alleine anzufertigen und in das Programm einzubinden.

* Öffne ein Terminal und navigiere ins Patroneo Verzeichnis
* Im Patroneo Verzeichnis: `cd gui/translations`
* Bearbeite die Datei `` mit einem Texteditor
** Hänge in der 2. Zeile den Namen deiner Sprache an, in der Form `XY.ts`, wobei XY der Sprachcode ist.
** Achte darauf ein Leerzeichen zwischen den einzelnen Sprachen zu lassen
* Führe `pylupdate5` aus.
** Das Programm hat nun eine neue `.ts` Datei im `translations` Verzeichnis generiert
* Starte Qt Linguist mit `linguist-qt5` (kann evtl. anders heißen) und öffne von dort deine neu generierte Datei
* Wähle deine "Target Language", also Zielsprache, aus und benutze das Programm um eine Übersetzung anzufertigen
* Sende uns die .ts Datei, z.B. per E-Mail an (s.u bei Bugs und Programmfehler für mehr Kontaktmöglichkeiten)

Die Übersetzung kannst du auch selbst, zum Testen, in Patroneo einbinden. Dafür sind rudimentäre Python Kentnisse nötig.

* Im Qt Linguist "Datei" Menü ist eine "Release" Option. Das erstellt eine `.qm` Datei im gleichen Verzeichnis wie deine `.ts` Datei.
* Öffne die `patroneo` Starterdatei im Texteditor
** Scrolle nach ganz unten, dort wird die Sprache eingestellt.
** Um deinen Sprachstring herauszufinden (German, Esperanto etc.) entferne die # Raute aus der bereits vorhandenen Zeile `#print (language)`. Starte NSM aus einem Terminal, starte Patroneo und der Sprachstring wird dort ausgegeben (man muss ein bischen suchen)
** Am Ende der Datei ist ein Dictionary `supportedLanguages`. Füge deine Sprache hinzu. z.B. `{"German":"de.qm", "Esperanto:"eo.qm"}`

=== Bugs und Programmfehler
Falls du einen Fehler im Programm entdeckst (oder es zu langsam läuft) melde dich bitte bei auf die Art und Weise, die dir am besten passt.

* E-Mail:
* Bugtracker:
* IRC: #laborejo auf dem Server
* Wenn du die Gelegenheit siehst und weist, dass ein Entwickler es lesen wird meinetwegen auch Foren, Facebook etc.

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:Author: Nils Hilbricht
:Version: 1.0

This documentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
To view a copy of this license, visit or send a
letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.
A copy of the license has been provided in the file documentation/LICENSE.



== Patroneo Multi-Language Documentation

This site is part of the[Laborejo Software Suite]

Please choose a language

* link:english.html[English]
* link:german.html[Deutsch (German)]

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